Under normal conditions in women, the bladder is held in place by a “hammock” of supportive pelvic floor muscles and tissue. When these tissues are stretched and/or become weak, the bladder can drop and bulge through this layer and into the vagina. This results in bladder prolapse, also called cystocele. In severe cases, the prolapsed bladder can appear at the opening of the vagina. Sometimes it can even protrude (drop) through the vaginal opening. The symptoms of bladder prolapse can be bothersome but can be treated.
Surgical repair comprises of dissecting the bladder off the vagina, reducing the bladder prolapse and reinforcing the tissues. This procedure is called anterior vaginal wall repair.