Most women on having missed a period would do a pregnancy test which may be positive. Confirmation of pregnancy is made by clinical features, ultrasound scan and a positive pregnancy test either urinary or blood.
In early pregnancy, many women experience some pain and/or spotting, which generates anxiety. An early scan, usually transvaginal, provides diagnosis and usually reassurance.
However in about 10%, the pregnancy may not be viable. A non-viable pregnancy within the uterine cavity is called ‘miscarriage’, which may be expelled spontaneously with bleeding like a heavy period and crampy pain, or may be retained for a long time before expulsion accompanied by bleeding and some pain.
Less commonly but more significantly, the non-viable pregnancy may have implanted in a fallopian tube, called ‘ectopic pregnancy’ where the main symptom is of pain with some bleeding.